Перевод итальянского артикля

ARTICOLI

Чаще всего артикль (определенный или неопределенный) остается «без перевода»; это касается случаев, когда артикль выполняет формальную функцию. Однако, нередко артикль дает дополнительную смысловую нагрузку существительному, к которому он относится. Его функция в таком случае может быть передана лексическими или синтаксическими средствами или теми и другими вместе.

Рассмотрим несколько примеров:

Определенный артикль:

Rischiamo con questo atteggiamento, di arrivare tardi anche su questi problemi, e questo non à certamente nell’interesse del NOSTRO PAESE. Проводя подобную политику, мы рискуем оказаться позади также и в решении данных вопросов, а это, конечно, не в интересах НАШЕЙ СТРАНЫ.
Veniamo ALLE decisioni che il governo ha fatto approvare al parlamento. Перейдем к тем решениям, которые были приняты парламентом по настоянию правительства.
Fra le decisioni di maggior rilievo è quella dell’avvio dei lavori di preparazione per la creazione di un sistema energetico unificato dei paesi membri DELL’organizzazione. Среди наиболее важных решений – решение начать подготовительные работы для создания единой энергетической системы стран – членов ЭТОЙ организации.
IL regolamento del problema mediorientale contribuirà a reallizzare la distensione nel bacino mediterraneo. УРЕГУЛИРОВАНИЕ ближневосточной проблемы будет способствовать разрядке напряженности в средиземноморском бассейне.

В приведенных примерах определенный артикль выполняет указательную функцию в зависимости от контекста при переводе мы использовали для передачи этой функции: притяжательное местоимение «наша» (первое предложение, где можно было использовать также и другой вариант, а именно «…. В интересах Италии», посколько речь идет именно об этой стране), указательное местоимение «те» (второе предложение), местоимение «эта» (Третье предложение), прямой порядок слов с подлежащим на первом месте (четвертое предложение).

Неопределенный артикль:

UN UOMO con accento irlandese aveva preannunciato làsplosione pochi minuti prima che avvenisse, in una telefonata all’agenzia di stampa P. КАКОЙ-ТО человек с ирландским акцентом предупредил об этом по телефону за несколько минут до взрыва агентства печати П.
Non ha vinto UN PARTITO, né ha vinto UN FRONTE. Победила не КАКАЯ-ТО отдельная партия и не КАКОЙ-ТО отдельный фронт.
UN GIORNALISTA, a questo punto, ha osservato: “Non vi sembra che…” ОДИН журналист заметил по этому поводу: «Не кажется ли вам, что…»
UN GIOVANE di 17 anni è rimastoferito stasera in un coflitto a fuoco con la polizia СЕМНАДЦАТИЛЕТНИЙ ЮНОША был ранен сегодня вечером во время перестрелки с полицией.
Questo è UN GESTO che potrebbe avere UN GRAN SIGNIFICATO. Это ТАКОЙ ШАГ, который мог бы иметь большое значение.

Неопределенный артикль в указанных случаях выполняет различные стилистические функции. В первой, третьей и четвертой фразах он подчеркивает неопределенность предмета, о котором идет речь. Для передачи этой функции неопределенности использованы лексические и синтаксические средства: неопределенно-личные местоимения – КАКОЙ-ТО человек, один ЖУРНАЛИСТ; порядок слов – четвертое предложение. Во второй и пятой фразах неопределенный артикль выполняет выделительную функцию, придавая соответствующим существительным особую стилистическую окраску, что мы постарались передать лексическими средствами: НЕ КАКАЯ-ТО ОТДЕЛЬНАЯ партия, НЕ КАКОЙ-ТО ОТДЕЛЬНЫЙ фронт; ТАКОЙ шаг.

ESERCIZI

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на передачу функции определенного и неопределенного артикля

1. Non è in virtù di autoritiche di questo stampo che si va dalla crisi, che si risolvono i problemi con cui (con i quali) IL PAESE deve oggi fare i conti.

2. L’INIZIATIVA dei partiti comunisti cade nel momento in cui (nel quale) l’interesse attorno ai problemi della condizione feminile è sottolineato dalla decisione dell’ONU di fare del 1975 l’anno internazione della donna.

3. L’ANNUNCIO è stato diffuso dalla TASS.

4. In seguito ad una perquisizione compiuta in UN APPARTAMENTO di via Mercadante, gli agenti della polizia hanno trovato un mitra con caricatore e cartucce.

TRADUCETE DAL RUSSO ALL’ITALIANO

LA PREPOSIZIONE CON

  1. Погода была плохая, поэтому мы предпочли остаться дома
  2. У нас был такой требовательный учитель, что мы старались изо всех сил.
  3. При такой безработице ему будет нелегко найти работу
  4. Уровень моего английского не позволяет мне работать устным переводчиком.
  5. На мои деньги дачу не купишь
  6. С таким акцентом нелегко привыкнуть к итальянской речи
  7. Мы с братом и сестрой ходили в школу по улице, на которой был супермаркет

QUELLO, CIO

  1. Ученикам было трудно привыкнуть к учителям средней школы, которые заметно отличались от учителей начальной школы.
  2. Школа, в которой я учился, находилась рядом со школой, в которой учился мой друг.
  3. Все, что Онегин читал в книгах, наводило на него тоску
  4. Жизнь в моем городке текла неспешно, в столице же жизнь была бурная, было полно машин, воздух загрязнен, люди замкнуты
  5. Все, что мать готовила на завтрак, я съедал в один присест (di colpo).
  6. Чтобы расширить кругозор, я читал все, что попадалось под руку
  7. Теперь я не общаюсь со своими давнишними друзьями, если не считать друзей, которых я смог приобрести, будучи студентом университета, тех, кто всегда ценил нашу дружбу.
  8. Я всегда говорил то, что думал

PER ESPRIMERE UN’ABITUDINE

  1. «Я никогда не стоял там, где можно было сидеть, и никогда не сидел там, где можно было лежать” (Уинстон Черчилль)
  2. Он часами смотрел в окно, наблюдая за прохожими
  3. Я всегда любил итальянскую пиццу
  4. Мы всегда уезжали на лето за границу
  5. Я всегда ходил в этот ресторан. Он мне очень нравится, здесь хорошо кормят
  6. Он всегда был скрытным
  7. Она всегда держала кур и цыплят, так что, если тебе нужны яйца, она тебе даст и дюжину, и две
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